Research Basis for All Aboard Phonics

All Aboard Learning began as Oxford Learning Solutions and has been a research-based organisation since 2008.

We have collated different strands of research into the causes of reading impairment from different domains of the research community, in order to get a global view of the possible causes of reading difficulty. We have discovered nine possible independent reasons why a child might be frustrated by reading.

Using that knowledge, we began building reading intervention resources in 2008 and testing them with thousands of learners. We tracked each learner individually, working with them individually around the world over the internet and learning from that experience.

That knowledge has now been compiled into our resources for All Aboard Phonics, which is getting unmatched results in the classroom as a result. See details on our two academic papers below.

Randomised Control Trial of Our Methodology

The Open University collected data in six London schools between October 2011 and June 2013, through a randomized control trial (RCT). Results show that children who were on average 2 years behind in reading age caught up to the national standard within 120 lessons.

That’s an average gain of 2 years in 4-6 months of daily lessons. You can see the published article in the Journal of Research in Reading. In 2019 it was shortlisted for an award for exemplary literacy research.

Correlational Study of All Aboard Phonics

A correlational study in five British state (public) schools found a 39% reduction in reading failures at the end of Year 1 (1st Grade). 

You can read the full paper here. 

Research Sources

We have taken research and opinions from a full range of academics, educationalists and other specialists. The methodology and tools we use combine this with our own research.


Barry, S. R. (2009). Fixing My Gaze, Philadelphia: Basic Books.

Beresford, S. M., Muris, D.W., Allen, M. J. and Young F. A. (1996). Improve Your Vision, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Brooks, G. (2013). What works for children and young people with literacy difficulties?, London: Dyslexia-SpLD Trust.

Chall, J. (1967). Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw Hill.

Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the Brain. New York: Penguin.

Doyle, J. (1996). Dyslexia an Introductory Guide. London: Whurr Publishing.

Eide, B. and Eide, F. (2006). The Mislabelled Child. New York: Hyperion.

Fletcher-Campbell, F., Soler, J. and Reid, G. (2009). Approaching Difficulties in Literacy Development, Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Freis, C. C. (1962). Lingusitics and Reading. New York: Holt, Rinehard and Winston Inc.

Ginsburg, H. and Opper, S. (1979). Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development. Prentice Hall.

Goddard Blythe, S. (2009). Attention, Balance and Coordination, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Hulme, C. and Snowling, M. J. (2009). Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Jager Adams, M. (1994). Beginning To Read. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Jama, D. and Dugdale, G. (2012). Literacy: State of the Nation. London: National Literacy Trust.

Lesnick, J., Goerge, R. M., Smithgall, C., & Gwynne, J. (2010). Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment? A longitudinal analysis of third-grade students in Chicago in 1996-97 and their educational outcomes. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago.

Mathews, M. M. (1976). Teaching to Read: Historically Considered. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

McGuinness, D. (1998). Why Children Can’t Read, London: Penguin.

McGuinness, D. (1998). Reading Reflex, London: Penguin.

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. and Guarino, A.J. (2006). Applied Multivariate Research, London: Sage Publications.

Morgan, D. H. and Forrest, S. (2018). The 9 Main Causes of Reading Difficulty. Oxford: Helping Children to Read.

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Pumfrey, P. and Reason, R. (1991) Specific Learning Difficulties (Dyslexia). London: Routledge.

Reid, G. (2009). Dyslexia. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Siegel, L. (2013). Understanding Dyslexia and Other Learning Disabilities, Vancouver: Pacific Education Press.

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Soler, J., Fletcher-Campbell, F. and Reid, G. (2009). Understanding Difficulties in Literacy Development. Milton Keynes: The Open University.

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Research Papers

Billiet, C.R., Bellis, T.J. (2011). “The relationship between brainstem temporal processing and performance on tests of central auditory function in children with reading disorders”. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, Vol 54, 228-242

Blanchard, M. (2023). “The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Literacy: How Literacy is Influenced by and Influences SES”. Michigan Journal of Economics website:

Boets, B., Wouters, J., van Wieringen, A., and Ghesquiere, P. (2007). “Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: A longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory”. Neuropsychologia, vol 45, 1608–1620.

Booth, J. R., Perfetti, C. A., MacWhinney, B., and Hunt, S. B. (2000). “The association of rapid temporal perception  with orthographic and phonological processing in children and adults with reading impairment”. Scientific Studies of Reading, vol 4, 101–132.

Bretherton, L., and Holmes, V. M. (2003). “The relationship between temporal auditory processing, phonemic awareness, and reading disability”. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol 84, 218–243.

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Bucci, M., Nassibi, N., Gerard, C-L., Bui-Quoc, E. and Seassau, M. (2012). “Immaturity of the Oculomotor  Saccade and Vergence Interaction in Dyslexic Children: Evidence from a Reading and Visual Search Study”. PLoS ONE, vol 7, issue 3

Castles, A., Rastle, K. and Nation K. (2018). “Ending the Reading Wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert”. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Vol 19(1), 5-51.

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Feister, L. (2010). “Early warning! Why reading by the end of third grade matters”. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation website:

FFT Education Datalab (2023). “Year 1 Phonics Attainment 2023”. FFT Dducation Datalab website:

Foster, MA; Lambert, R; Abbott-Shim, M; McCarty, F; Franze (2005). “A model of home learning environment and social risk factors in relation to children’s emergent literacy and social outcomes”. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol 20, 13-36

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Gibson, L. Y., Hogben, J. H., and Fletcher, J. (2006). “Visual and auditory processing and component reading skills in developmental dyslexia”.  Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol 23, 621–642.

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Hooi Yin Loo, J., Bamiou, D-E. and Rosen, S (2013). “The impacts of language background and language-related disorders in auditory processing assessment”. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, Vol 56, 1-12

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